Marking 100 years since political change

1918 Election poster. IWM (Art.IWM PST 12177)

6 February 2018 marks 100 years since the Representation of the People Act was passed, which extended the right to vote to all men over 21 and those over the age of 19 serving in the armed forces. For the first time, women over the age of 30 who met specific criteria could vote – this enfranchised 8.5 million women, although many more would have to wait until the Equal Franchise Act of 1928.

In this blog post, we look at the stories of mother and daughter Mary and Kathleen Duckworth – both of them worked as nurses during the war but only one of them received the right to vote in 1918.

 

Mary Elizabeth (left) and Kathleen Duckworth. IWM Documents.15144

  • The Duckworths

Mother and daughter Mary and Kathleen Duckworth lived in the mill town of Heywood, Lancashire. At the start of the war, Mary was aged 38 and Kathleen just 13 years old – they would both go on to make valuable contributions to their local war effort.

In 1916, Mary and her husband Walter set up the Heywood Auxiliary Hospital in a church hall. Mary oversaw the day-to-day running of the hospital, which cared for wounded servicemen.

 

Photograph of hospital beds in Heywood Auxiliary Hospital. IWM Documents.15144

The hospital facilities included an operating theatre, ward, dining room and snooker room. Whilst the medical wellbeing of the patients was the priority, the hospital staff and local community also found time to put on plays and entertainment for the convalescing troops.

From 1918, Kathleen also worked at the hospital as a Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) nurse. Records show that she worked almost 2,000 hours at the hospital until it closed in April 1919.

 

  • The Representation of the People Act

After a long campaign to extend the right to vote to women, the 1918 Representation of the People Act was an important milestone on the road to full democracy. However, in order to be eligible to join the electorate, women had to meet these criteria:

  1. Aged 30 and over
  2. Owners (or the wife of a man who were owners) of land or property worth £5 or more OR graduates of British universities

Although 8.5 million women met this criteria, this only represented 40 per cent of the total population of women in the UK. Within the Duckworth family, Mary was granted the right to vote and appears on the 1921 Electoral Register – however, under these rules 17 year old Kathleen would not even be considered for inclusion for another 13 years.

 

A crowd of women listening to a speech by another woman, who is likely a suffragette or women’s rights activist. IWM Q 107105

  • Limitations of the Act

Case studies such as these challenge the notion that women were granted the right to vote in recognition for their role in the First World War – indeed, many young women such as Kathleen had ‘done their bit’ but were excluded. There are different theories as to why this may have been the case. It was felt that that women over 30 were more likely to be traditional in their political views – many would be married with children, and so would most likely vote in the same way as their husband.  Research on voting patterns in the 1920s does indicate that women tended to vote for the Conservatives. Furthermore, many pre-war suffragettes may have met the age criterion but did not necessarily meet the property requirements, and so this Act may have been intended to curb radical political views.

Nevertheless, this Act was a significant moment in the history of British politics. In December 1919, Lady Astor became the first woman to take a seat in Parliament. In 1928 women over 21 were finally granted political equality to men – Kathleen Duckworth appears on the 1929 electoral roll under her married name, Kathleen Hollinrake.

 

100 years on, we pay tribute to the men and women who made a contribution during the First World War – share your stories with us on Lives of the First World War.

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Chairs that Stand Empty: The men behind the names on the Hulme Hall First World War Memorial

Hulme Hall is a Hall of Residence for students at The University of Manchester. Founded in 1870, the Hall has changed constantly over the past 148 years to meet the changing landscape of university life. Over 250 current and former students fought during the First World War. 40 were to lose their lives, with 33 remembered on the Hulme Hall War Memorial.

After research taken over a period of seven years, former resident James Hern has pieced together the lives of the 40 men who lost their lives between 1914 and 1919. In this guest blog post, James tells us about the research that led to the publication of his book Chairs that Stand Empty: The men behind the names on the Hulme Hall First World War Memorial

  • Stories behind the names

Names that once would have stirred memories of friendship, academic success or endeavours on sports pitches had become simply another unknown name on a memorial plaque.

It took me three minutes to read the names of the 33 names of men on the Hulme Hall War Memorial during the 2002 and 2003 Remembrance Services. Names that once would have stirred memories of friendship, academic success or endeavours on sports pitches had become simply another unknown name on a memorial plaque. Lives remembered for a fleeting moment.

James Henderson won the MC in 1915 for holding off waves of enemy attacks during the Battle of Frezenberg. He was wounded twice before being killed in August 1916. Photo: The Manchester University Magazine, held at the University of Manchester Library

In 2010, during an unscheduled brief visit to the Somme, I decided to look into the stories of the men on the memorial, my primary purpose being to help me understand the narrative of the First World War and what made the undulating and barren landscape of this part of France worth the lives of hundred of thousands of men.

I certainly was fortunate. The Hulme Hall archives provided a rich source of information, with photographs, obituaries, administration records, magazines and yearly reports by the Warden. Through cross-referencing the administration records against the Commonwealth War Graves Commission website, I identified a further seven men who died but were not listed on the Hulme Hall War Memorial. The reasons for their omission haven’t been confirmed.

With the majority of the men receiving a commission at some point, their service records held at the National Archives at Kew provided a key glimpse into their army life. Howard Harker wrote passionately to the War Office, requesting the opportunity to join the Royal Flying Corps. His work in the experimental department of the Royal Aircraft Factory was considered a reserved occupation. Receiving a commission in 1916, he became a gifted fighter pilot, fighting against Manfred von Richthofen’s squadron during the Battle of Arras in 1917.

Image of George Hebblethwaite, taken in 1912/1913 when he was an Arts Student at Manchester University. Image added to Lives of the First World War by George’s relative

  • Family stories and memories

Whilst the archives at Kew and Manchester provided an insight into the lives of the men, it was making contact with families and discovering letters that brought the research to life and changed it from a personal project to one where I felt I had an obligation to publish the stories I had uncovered. Photographs of the men provided an insight into their character and lives; from family gatherings, weddings, school photographs and in active service.

Harland Watts was studying History at the outbreak of War. He married Sarah Johnson
shortly before leaving for France with the South Lancashire Regiment. Photo: Michael Watts

Of the letters written by the men, the most powerful were those written by Robert Bedford, Harry Pickles, William Wildblood and Harland Watts to their History tutor at Manchester, Professor Tout.

Robert Bedford fought in Gallipoli, Sinai and the Western Front between 1915 and 1918. He wrote eight letters to Professor Tout through this time; his emotions clearly displaced from the horrors of seeing his friend’s bodies lying out in no-man’s land after failed attacks in Gallipoli in 1915, to the boredom of life in the Sinai desert the following year whilst fighting raged in France.

Robert’s humour shines through as he describes dealing with newly qualified junior officers, his men berating their mates who received ‘Blighty’ wounds and the cynicism of the British press reporting on the progress of the War.

Arriving in France in 1917, Robert was subsequently wounded on two occasions; the first during a gas attack that led to him being temporarily blinded for a week and the second when being struck on the foot by shrapnel. In March 1918 he was killed during a German offensive on the Somme.

  • Remembering the men 100 years on

Some day the war will be over and we shall meet again – or we shall meet if we can bear to face the chairs that will stand empty – Reverend J H Hopkinson, Hulme Hall Warden

The lives of the 40 men from Hulme Hall captured unique stories that cover most aspects of the War, from the sea, land and air; Gallipoli, France, Belgium, Greece and Africa. It is my hope that future generations of Hulme Hall students will pause and remember the men behind the names in future years.

Discover the stories of men from the Hulme Hall Memorial, in this Lives of the First World War Community

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Coming up in 2018

Happy New Year to all our Supporters, Members and Friends! Thank you for all your wonderful contributions to Lives of the First World War in 2017, and for helping us to remember the toil and sacrifice of men and women from across the British Empire and Commonwealth.

We need your help this year to build the permanent digital memorial even further, so please continue to share your stories and images with us. Amongst others, we will be marking 100 years since key moments and events of 1918, which include the following:

 

January – March

A Ministry of Food ration book dating from 1918, including an advertisement for the Imperial War Museum on the reverse of some of the coupons. IWM Documents.8012

 

April – June

Air Mechanics of the Women’s Royal Air Force (WRAF) working on the fuselage of an Avro 504 aircraft. IWM Q 27255

 

July – September

The Doiran Front Seen from Sal Grec de Popovo, by William T Wood. Art.IWM ART 2244

 

October – December

  • Armistice
  • Surrender of the German High Fleet
  • Allied troops enter Germany

The Armistice 1918: Crowds waving and smiling around the Victoria Memorial outside Buckingham Palace in London. IWM Q 47894

 

What’s your amazing discovery on Lives of the First World War? Share your stories with us on Facebook and Twitter.

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“Cruiser Afire!” – The loss of HMS Natal

HMS Natal. IWM Q 39678

Cruiser Afire!” Commander Gregory Gonville Cuff Wood-Martin was crossing just in front of the X turret of the Battleship, HMS Superb, when he heard the boat signalman’s shout. He immediately rushed to the port rail and could see two columns of smoke and fire rising from HMS Natal. The Superb’s boats were hoisted out to help but all too quickly Wood-Martin heard the cry, “She’s gone”.

30 December 2017 marks 102 years since this incident, in which many hundreds of people lost their lives. In this guest blog post, Lives of the First World War Volunteer Trevor Torkington tells the story of HMS Natal and those who were caught up in the tragedy.

 

  • HMS Natal

HMS Natal was a Warrior-class armoured cruiser and on that fateful day was at anchor in the Cromarty Firth. Her Captain, Eric Percy Coventry Back, had allowed a number of the ship’s crew to take shore leave – many of them to watch, and play, in an inter-ship football match.

For some of his officers however, Captain Back had invited them and their wives to a film show on board. He had also invited a family friend, John Henry Dods – a former Scottish International rugby player – his wife Annie and their children Dorothy, Marcus and John.  Captain Back’s wife (their own children were ill) and three nurses from the nearby hospital ship HMS Drina (including Caroline Maud Edwards, pictured below), completed the party.

IWM WWC H21-32-1

At around 3.20 pm the Natal was rocked by an explosion, followed by a further three blasts in short succession. Flames shot throughout the ship but the true seriousness of the situation wasn’t fully appreciated, with injured seaman were being sent to sickbay to have their burns dressed. Orders to flood the magazines couldn’t be carried out and although hoses were rigged no water was obtainable through the fire main system. Within three minutes of the first explosion the ship started to list heavily to port and after another two minutes, she had completely settled down with the forward end of the starboard bilge keel clear of the water.

422 men, women and children lost their lives in this disaster – this Lives of the First World War Community pays tribute to them.

 

Obituary in Kent Messenger, 29 January 1916. Photograph uploaded by Stephen Morris

 

  • Notifying Next of Kin

The loss of the ship was soon announced to the press. Various photographs of the Natal, her crew and the ship’s cat (with the caption “Rudolph, it is feared, was on board at the time”) appeared on the front page of the Daily Sketch two days running. And although they attempted to notify next of kin as quickly as possible, the Admiralty was inundated with letters from family members of the crew, desperate for news. One such example was from Mrs Bush of Latham Road, East Ham who sought information about her nephew:

The suspense is making me ill so if you could possibly give me any information I should be very thankful

“Will it be asking you too much for information about Wilfred Albert Trim Roberts… I am his aunt I took him when 3 years of age when his mother died so of course feel anxious…… the suspense is making me ill so if you could possibly give me any information I should be very thankful…..Trusting I am not giving you too much trouble

Sadly, Wilfred, a Boy Servant, was not among the survivors. He was seventeen when he died.

There were also cases of next of kin being told about deaths incorrectly. Mrs Nelson of Belfast was just one who later received a telegram stating that her son was in fact safe along with the sentiment that “any distress which the receipt of the official intimation that he was lost may have caused you is regretted”. Mrs Nelson responded:

“I received your letters alright and I assure you they caused me no anxiety whatever, my son sent me a telegram to say he was alright on Friday last and he has just arrived home”

 

  • Court Martial

Although not immediately ruled out, the idea of a submarine attack was soon dismissed. In order to carry out a torpedo attack, a U-boat would have needed to have passed two other ships: another cruiser and an even more tempting target – the battleship Emperor of India. Having talked to survivors personally, and from divers reports, Vice-Admiral Jellicoe was of the opinion that the foundering of the Natal was due to an internal explosion.

As was traditional in the loss of a Royal Navy ship, a Court Martial into the loss of the Natal was held at Chatham between 18th and 20th January 1916. As the highest surviving officer, Lieutenant Commander John Spencer Tyndall was the first to give evidence. He was in the Mail Office under the after shelter deck at the time of the explosion, and in the immediate aftermath directed the crew to rig fire hoses. His testimony, along with that of others, in particular the divers William Russell and Charles Lambert, confirmed the opinion that the loss of Natal was due to an internal explosion caused by faulty ammunition. (The divers reported that the explosion had blown both sides of the ship bodily outwards). A similar conclusion was found for the loss of HMS Bulwark in 1914 and would again be the conclusion for the loss of HMS Vanguard in 1917. The Court Martial confirmed that the loss was not due to the design, carelessness or the negligence of officers and men.

 

  • Alternative Theory

Because of his severe injuries, only written evidence was taken from the Officer of the Watch at the time, Lieutenant Denis Quintin Fildes, son of the artist and illustrator Sir Luke Fildes.

According to the account given in ‘They Called it Accident’ by A. Cecil Hampshire, lying in his hospital bed Fildes had some anxiety about an incident which occurred on the afternoon of the accident. He’d heard a strange sound emanating from a ventilator shaft and had sent one of the crew to investigate. Fildes began to wonder whether the noise he had heard was in fact caused by a fire in the magazine. After the sinking Fildes became more inclined that the explosion had been caused by an incendiary device. He was more convinced this was the case when he attended a book tour by a former German officer Kapitan Lieutenant Franz von Rintelen who gave a lecture on the various acts of sabotage he had carried out, including sinking ships through the means of incendiaries.

 

Chatham Naval Memorial. Photograph uploaded by Vincent Stuart

  • Legacy

Today, a buoy marks the spot where Natal sank – the remains of the wreck designated under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986. Many of those who died are remembered on the naval memorials at Chatham, Portsmouth and Plymouth. Of the bodies recovered only 17 were identified and were buried in the local cemeteries of Cromarty and Rosskeen. More than 100 years later her memory lives on in the local community, with a garden created in her honour at Invergordan, museums in Cromarty and Invergordan remembering the sinking and a memorial in Durban erected in 1927.

 

  • Share your stories with us on Lives of the First World War
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The Half‐Shilling Curate – the story of the Rev. Herbert Butler Cowl C.F. M.C.

Herbert with his sister Muriel who helped nurse him back to good health. Courtesy of Sarah Reay

On Christmas Eve 1914, Reverend Herbert Butler Cowl began his service with the Royal Army Chaplains’ Department. He became the only known Army Chaplain during the Great War to be awarded the Military Cross medal for exemplary gallantry on a ship. In this guest blog post Herbert’s granddaughter Sarah Reay shares his story with us, which she has published under the title The Half-Shilling Curate, A personal account of war & faith 1914-1918

  • The role of the Army Chaplain

The Army Chaplains not only provided spiritual guidance and sustenance to the men, but they became major contributors to general morale. They also gave invaluable assistance in the Field Ambulances at the frontline, helping medical staff, from doctors to stretcherbearers. Army Chaplains worked in the Army Camps and the Garrisons too, helping to prepare men for what they had to face at the front in battle and also supporting the wounded and sick who returned home.

A British Chaplain and army medic bringing back a wounded man from the Somme. IWM Q 721

Most of the Army Chaplains had no experience of working with soldiers before the First World War. This conflict was considered to be a righteous war and the churches responded with a supply of suitable candidates. Suitability ranged from being physically fit, to the ability to preach ‘extempore’ (‘off the cuff’), an ability to ride a horse and to speak a foreign language. Herbert Cowl was one of the youngest Wesleyan Army Chaplains in 1914 ‐ despite being in his 20’s, he had all of the qualities that the Royal Army Chaplains’ Department were looking for.

  • ‘The Half-Shilling Curate’

Born in 1886 in Leeds, Herbert finished his training to become a Methodist minister in 1910. He was affectionately known by his family as ‘The Half‐Shilling Curate’ – his lack of experience led him to feel he was “not the full shilling”. Herbert’s descriptive account of his experiences as a young Army Chaplain, from his own personal letters and writings, illustrated the value of faith during the war ‐ the balance between serving God and carrying out his duties as a captain in the British Army.

Rev Herbert Cowl. Courtesy of Sarah Reay

Sometimes as I cross a bit of rising ground between here and Headquarters, where the country is open, and the road only lined by an endless avenue of huge polled witch‐elms, I stand in the darkness; watch the probing searchlights flicker on to the clouds and hear those grim far off voices speaking death. It is a new sound; it is another world; and it calls to unprecedented scenes and experiences. God grant as we march into it all, that there may arise a man in me that is sufficient to this new occasion!

(Extract from a letter written to in France to Herbert’s parents in 1915)

  • Comforting the sick

No man wanted to be forgotten and left behind in the mud of Flanders. It was comforting for the soldiers to know, and be re‐assured, that if the worst fate should come to them, the padre, a good man would inter them and send them to Heaven with the full blessing of God.

One of the most important duties for an Army Chaplain was to comfort those who had been injured or fallen ill during their service.

For all their … ghastly wounds, they were the gayest company I remember meeting.

One evening I entered that room for some week night meeting and there covering the floor and propped up against the walls, packed from end to end, side to side were wounded men just unloaded from the Western Front. They were the heroes of the hour and very well they knew it, but for all their pathetic disfigurements and their ghastly wounds, they were the gayest company I remember meeting.

(Observations from Rev Cowl whilst at Portsmouth Garrison in 1917)

 

  • The dangerous reality of war

Herbert was severely wounded on the frontline in November 1915 and was sent home to Britain on board the hospital ship ‘Anglia’. Unfortunately, she became the first Red Cross ship to be lost due to enemy action in the war off the South East coast of England. Herbert handed his life belt to someone who he thought needed it more than himself, for which he was awarded the Military Cross.

 

The sinking of HMHS Anglia. Courtesy of Sarah Reay

My initial memory of my ‘Grandad’ when I was about 5 years of age: He was a very old man of average height with a fine bronze-coloured weather-beaten complexion and a full head of thick snow white hair. His spoken words were delivered in a very mellow peaceful manner. His voice was soft, husky and vibrant with almost an air of magic – I had never heard anyone speak so distinctively before. I learnt later in life that this was due to a piece of German shrapnel that had slashed through his jaw and voice box during a war that had taken place many years before I was born.

The Rev. Herbert B. Cowl C.F. M.C. considered himself no hero, but this is his story –one of many stories that had never been told before. The Army Chaplains who served so gallantly during the Great War have been largely over looked. However, let us hope now that their selfless courage is never forgotten.

 

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The Battle of Cambrai – ‘Use tanks boldly, press success and demoralise the enemy’

A British Mark IV tank at Wailly. © IWM Q 6284

As the Third Battle of Ypres drew to a close in the Passchendaele mud, Sir Douglas Haig gave his approval for General Sir Julian Byng, Third Army, to prepare for an attack on Cambrai in late November 1917. This would be the first time that tanks were used successfully en masse to spearhead the attack. In this blog post, we examine the objectives and success of the attack, and share the testimony of a tank commander who survived.

 

  • Objectives and preparations

The objective was the town of Cambrai and beyond. Six infantry and five cavalry divisions, along with three tank brigades, would be used. Surprise and rapidity of action were of the utmost importance, as it was calculated that no large hostile reinforcements were likely to reach the scene of action for forty-eight hours after the commencement of the attack.

 

British Mark IV Female Tanks being loaded aboard flat-bed railway trucks in preparation for the Battle of Cambrai. © IWM Q 46933

Unlike the quagmire of Passchendaele, the ground at Cambrai was, on the whole, favourable for the employment of tanks which were to play an important part. Facilities also existed for the concealment of the necessary preparations for the attack. In efforts to transform stasis into movement, the tank was developed under rushed conditions with the hope of breaking the entrenched stalemate of the Western Front.

In order to preserve secrecy up to the moment of attack it was decided to dispense with previous artillery preparation and depend, instead, on tanks to cut lanes through the enemy’s wire for the advance of the infantry.

 

  • Into action

At the start of the battle forces were equally matched, with 250,000 German and British soldiers facing each other along a 6 mile front. The initial attack carried out by the tanks proved effective, and within three hours a line had been broken in the German defences.

Captain Joseph Gordon Hassell commanded the tank ‘Harrier’, one of 378 fighting tanks that took part in the battle. He wore a tank mask (pictured below), designed to protect the tank crew from ‘splash’ – flying metal splinters caused by the impact of bullets hitting the outer steel of the tank’s body.

 

In action if the tank was hit, slivers of hot steel began to fly – bullets hitting the armoured plates caused melting and the splash, as in steel factories, was dangerous to the eyes.

Anti-splinter tank crew face mask, belonging to Joseph Hassell.
© IWM EQU 1654

Hassell successfully advanced beyond the second Hindenburg line on to the village of Ribecourt and on to his final objective the third Hindenburg defence line; however, later that day ‘Harrier’ became one of 179 tanks that were put out of action by German artillery fire or mechanical failure.

Hassell described going into action:

‘I was in the second wave … we just managed to swing the tank through 90 degrees and start off downhill on our right, when the first shot took off my right… had we been broadside on, we should all have been done for.  We received three direct hits – tank completely put out of action. This was after we had reached all our final objectives… Apart from the scratches we had no casualties…

Whilst the Harrier crew emerged unscathed, there were many casualties on the first day of the battle – one of those who lost their lives on 20 November 1917 was Captain the Honourable Cecil Edwardes. His service history is interesting as he enlisted in December 1914 under the name of Thomas Lloyd, only confessing to this fabrication of identity in March 1917:

‘I, Cecil Edwardes, 3rd son of the 4th Lord Kensington, born May 31st 1876, do solemnly and sincerely declare that I was enlisted on the 28th day of December 1914, under the name of Thomas Lloyd, which name I now declare to be incorrect. The name of Cecil Edwardes, I now declare to be my true name, and I make this solemn declaration’

By way of explanation he wrote:

When war was declared I returned to England from South America but owing to financial matters I was unable to apply for a Commission and so enlisted in the 3rd Regiment of Scottish Horse in December 25th 1914… I was granted Special leave to forward to England to settle my affairs – which has now been done and I should now like to be known by my real name – now that I am in England, not bearing my real name is causing me a great deal of inconvenience.’

Edwardes was immensely popular and eight officers went up the day after his death, got his body out of the tank and carried him back for burial.

Hassell recalled that Edwardes ‘had a premonition of his death [at Cambrai]. He told us the day before the action of this – settled up all his affairs. He was immensely popular and eight officers went up the day after his death, got his body out of the tank and carried him back for burial. In the absence of a Padre, I conducted such a burial service as was practicable.’

 

  • Counter-attack

This first day marked a decisive success for tank warfare, with five miles gained and 4,000 German soldiers taken prisoner – church bells were rung in Britain for the first time since the start of the war, to celebrate the advance. However, by 23 November , the tanks had lost their strength and the element of surprise. Haig had insisted that the woods were to be taken to enable a wider plan of attack. On November 27, the British attempted to take Fontaine, and the tanks were running into trouble in hemmed-in movements and technical malfunction. British war correspondent Philip Gibbs wrote: ‘no human being could stay alive there for a second after showing himself in the village.’ The British troops who had not entered Cambrai withdrew.

On 30 November the German Second Army counter-attacked, advancing almost three miles and capturing 6,000 British soldiers and 158 guns. Their combination of gas shells and close air support was as effective as the tanks had been for Britain at the start of the battle. On 2 December 1917 Haig instructed Byng to choose a secure winter line, withdraw and protect it – within a few days the battle drew to a close.

A Mark IV (Male) tank of H Battalion ditched in a German trench, 20 November 1917. © IWM Q 6433

  • Impact of the battle

Cambrai had failed to be the much hoped for turning point. The battle had resulted in 44,000 British and Canadian and 53,000 German casualties. However, the use of tank, infantry, artillery and cavalry in the Battle of Cambrai ultimately paved the way for combined arms operation of 1918. It was when these components – technology and man power – came together in tactical manoeuvres that success was finally achieved.

A century later, we pay tribute to all those who took part in the battle – share your stories with us on Lives of the First World War.

 

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Remembering Cecil Kinross: An Unconventional Hero

Private Cecil John Kinross VC. IWM VC 698

By October 1917, the Third Battle of Ypres had been raging for more than 2 months. The next target was the village of Passchendaele – which became the informal title given to the whole campaign. An ill-prepared attack in pouring rain was made on 12 October, and the attack was renewed on 26 October. In this guest blog post, Celine Nonde, who has been undertaking a student placement with us, remembers Canadian soldier Cecil John Kinross – he fought in the Second Battle of Passchendaele, and won the Victoria Cross for his bravery and quick-thinking. 

 

  • Life before the First World War

Born in Harefield, Middlesex in 1896, Cecil Kinross was the third child of Emily and James Kinross. Cecil had a relatively normal start to life, attending school at Coleshill Grammar School in Warwickshire.

Blue plaque on Cecil’s childhood home in Hillingdon, London. Image courtesy of Memorials to Valour website

However, with a father who as a teenager had worked as a Texan cowboy, it was clear that Cecil’s life would not remain typical for long. As such, in 1912, along with his four other siblings, the family moved to Canada. They settled in Lougheed, Alberta, a small but newly established village, and following in his father’s footsteps, Cecil worked as a farmer before enlisting.

 

  • Disregard for army rules

From relative rural obscurity, Cecil quickly became a notorious figure in the army. His attestation papers note his stature and at almost 6ft with blue eyes and brown hair, Cecil Kinross cut a handsome figure. Yet his appearance was of little importance to him, quickly becoming a sore spot with his senior officers. He was criticised for his untidiness on parade and branded a ‘disgrace to the platoon’. This troubled relationship with senior authority was to mark his army career.

However, probably much to the annoyance of senior staff, he was blessed with singular good luck. Whilst his numerous commanding officers were wiped out in the battlefield, Kinross remained unscathed. He returned only with the nickname ‘Hoodoo’, given for his apparent curse on his leaders.

 

  • Victoria Cross

His disregard for rules was the very attitude which led to the award of his Victoria Cross, for his actions on 30 October 1917. Trapped in a shell hole and under intense fire from a German machine gun, Cecil, now a private in 49 Battalion Edmonton Regiment, decided to take action. Leaving behind the rest of his Company as well as all his military equipment save his rifle and bandolier, Kinross charged the gun. Such extraordinary tactics paid off. Taking the German crew by surprise, Kinross successfully destroyed the machine gun which had been causing so many casualties.

His superb example and courage instilled the greatest confidence in his company

Even his VC citation seems impressed by the boldness of his solo mission which was undertaken in ‘the open ground in broad daylight’ (The London Gazette, 8 January 1918). Not only did he enable land to be gained, Cecil’s confidence inspired his company. Wounded the same day as his heroic actions, Kinross was gazetted for the VC on the 8th of January 1918. Finally, this rebellious private from the Canadian Expeditionary Force was rewarded for his recklessness.

Yet he remained followed by authority; even after leaving Buckingham Palace following his VC ceremony, he was arrested by police who believed he was falsely wearing the military medal.

 

  • Post-war life

Cecil’s original gravestone – now replaced with a Commonwealth War Graves Commission stone. Photo by Terry Macdonald, licensed under Creative Commons

He lived out the rest of his life in Canada, living in a hotel in Lougheed until his death in 1957. His life was marked by a unique spark which matched his contempt for the army’s regimentation. Yet his bravery in battle is clear. Today, the twin peaks of Mount Kinross in Alberta, stand as a natural testament to his actions. I chose to write about his story because it is not the traditional story of a war hero – the example of Cecil Kinross remains an inspiring testament to those soldiers who were anything but conventional.

 

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“The unwritten story of a great air fight” – William Reason Bishop and Douglas Fraser Mackintosh

William Bishop (left) and Douglas Fraser Mackintosh. Images courtesy of Richard Bishop

On 2 October 1917, William Reason Bishop and Douglas Fraser Mackintosh were killed when their aircraft crashed during a fight in the skies above Belgium. The German army buried them with full military honours, and their graves were tended by two local girls, Carola and Paula Vanderoughstraete. In this guest blog post, William’s great great nephew Richard Bishop tells us about his research into the story, ahead of a remembrance event to pay respects to these two brave airmen.  

 

  • Life before the war

William Reason Bishop was born in 1895, the youngest of six siblings. He grew up in Highbury, London and soon began to exhibit a remarkable talent for singing – as a soloist in Temple Church Choir he sang at the coronation of King George V in 1911. After leaving school, he worked as a clerk for Barclays Bank at its Pall Mall branch.

Douglas Fraser Mackintosh was born in 1890 in Thirsk, Yorkshire. He was the son of Ethel and the Reverend William Teesdale Mackintosh and by 1901 the family were living in Brighton. At some point before the war he moved to Australia, but little is known about this period in his life.

By 1914 the clouds of war were gathering, and both men would volunteer to serve in the armed forces.

 

  • Wartime service

After the outbreak of war, Douglas joined 1 Australian Contingent under the name ‘George Matthews’. He was seriously wounded during the Gallipoli campaign and was sent back to the UK. Once recovered was commissioned into the Royal Field Artillery, and later joined the Royal Flying Corps (RFC).

William volunteered in December 1915 and enlisted into 1/6 Battalion Royal Sussex Regiment, a territorial cyclist battalion which was engaged in home defence for most of the war. In November 1916, he too was accepted into the Royal Flying Corps and spent much of 1917 in training – first at Christ Church College, Oxford and then RFC Doncaster, RFC Harlaxton and RFC Waddington.

William Bishop pictured in May 1917. Courtesy of Richard Bishop

William embarked for France on 14 September 1917 and was posted to 55 Squadron, a bomber unit based near St Omer. Much of the Squadron’s activity involved bombing German airfields in Belgium, targeting both enemy trenches and Zeppelin and aircraft bases used for attacks on Britain. William wrote home telling his family that he had “never had such an enjoyable time”, that his Squadron was “the finest in France” and that he was proud to belong to it. However, his flying career at the front was cut short after only seventeen days.

 

  • Their final flight together

The two appeared on the front Page of the Illustrated Sunday Herald, 17 February 1918. Courtesy of Richard Bishop

At 8:59 on 2 October 1917, a formation of 12 aircraft took off to bomb the airfield at Marcke where the German fighter squadron Jagdstaffel 10 was based. Jagdstaffel 10 was part of the famous ‘Flying Circus’ commanded by Manfred Von Richthofen, known as ‘the Red Baron’.

William was piloting a De Haviland DH4, with Douglas acting as his observer. The pair became separated from the rest of the squadron, probably because of poor visibility that morning, and their aircraft was last seen crossing the front line to the north of Ypres.

Local eyewitnesses reported that their aircraft was attacked by seven German fighters over the town of Meulebeke. A furious battle began; the lone British aircraft looping, diving and defying its attackers for 20 minutes. Inevitably, flames were seen and the DH4 crashed in the fields. Both William and Douglas were killed.

The German pilot who claimed the victory, Hans Klein, visited the crash site and was heard to say in broken French, “‘What a pity such heroes should have to die! They could have escaped, but preferred to fight to a finish. Never have I seen such gallant resistance before.”

Never have I seen such gallant resistance before

The two airmen were given a military funeral by the German army in Meulebeke, and are buried in Harlebeke New British Cemetery. Belgian girls Carola and Paula Vanderoughstraete looked after their graves and returned William and Douglas’ personal effects to their relatives after the war. They also hosted the families when they travelled to Belgium after the Armistice to visit the cemetery. 100 years on, members of the Bishop, Mackintosh and Vanderoughstraete families will meet at an event to pay their respects to the two brave airmen, and to remember the dedication shown by Carola and Paula.

 

  • Pay tribute to William and Douglas on Lives of the First World War
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‘Shot at dawn’ – the story of Herbert Morris

Memorial to military executions carried out in Poperinghe, Belgium. Photograph taken by Charlotte Czyzyk, September 2016

During the First World War, more than 300 men serving with British forces were executed for offences including desertion, disobedience and violence. Those punished for cowardice or desertion received a posthumous pardon from the UK government in 2006, yet the subject of those ‘shot at dawn’ remains controversial and highly sensitive. In this blog post we look at the story of 17 year old Herbert Morris, who was executed 100 years ago for desertion.

 

Herbert was born in Jamaica in 1900, to Ophelia and William Morris. We know very little about his early life, but it is possible that he was employed on fruit or sugar cane farms like many people living in the area.

In 1915 Britain’s War Office, which had initially opposed recruitment of West Indian troops, created the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR), which served in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The formation of the BWIR did not give black soldiers from the West Indies the opportunity to fight as equals alongside white soldiers. Instead, the War Office largely limited their participation to ‘labour’ duties.

West Indian troops stacking 8 inch shells in Ypres, October 1917. © IWM E(AUS) 2078

Herbert joined 6 Battalion British West Indies Regiment sometime in late 1916 or early 1917, meaning that like many other young men at that time he enlisted underage. After a long sea voyage in which many troops died from illness, the unit arrived in France on 17 April 1917.

 

  • Service in France

BWIR troops were engaged in numerous support roles on the Western Front, including digging trenches, building roads and gun emplacements, acting as stretcher bearers, loading ships and trains, and working in ammunition dumps. This dangerous work was often carried out within range of German artillery and snipers. Indeed, Herbert reported to the army doctor that ‘I am troubled with my head. I cannot stand the sound of the guns.’

This testimony suggests that Herbert may have suffered from war-related trauma, known at the time as shell shock. He was fined for fighting in his billet on 3 June 1917, and received punishment for being absent without leave on 16 July. On 20 August, he again left his post without permission and was arrested the next day in Boulogne.

 

  • Court Martial and execution

Herbert faced a court martial on 7 September 1917.

The accused has never given me any trouble. He is well behaved – Lieutenant Andrews

His commanding officers gave a good account of his behaviour and work ethic, but unfortunately the blemishes on his record counted against him and he was sentenced to death.

Although around 3,000 men were given the death penalty during the war, the vast majority of them had their sentences commuted to imprisonment or forced labour. However, because of mutinies amongst the Allies and in light of the continuing offensive in autumn 1917, Herbert’s sentence was carried out in order to deter other potential deserters.

 

Herbert Morris’ grave in Poperinghe New Military Cemetery. Photograph taken by Charlotte Czyzyk, September 2016

He was shot in the courtyard behind Poperinghe Town Hall at 6.10am on 20 September 1917, and buried nearby. Today, he lies in Poperinghe New Military Cemetery alongside more than 670 other men, 16 of whom who were also ‘shot at dawn’. Herbert’s headstone does not reveal the circumstances behind his death, reflecting the Commonwealth War Graves Commission’s principle of equality amongst the dead.

 

  • Legacy

Herbert’s plaque at the ‘Shot at Dawn’ Memorial, National Memorial Arboretum. Photograph taken by Charlotte Czyzyk, November 2016

The 2006 Armed Forces Act pardoned Herbert Morris as “one of the many victims of the First World War … execution was not a fate he deserved.” He is remembered at the ‘Shot at Dawn’ memorial at the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire, and is united with other men who shared his fate in this Lives of the First World War Community.

 

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Society hostess and social reformer: Remembering Millicent, Duchess of Sutherland

Millicent Sutherland-Leveson-Gower, the Duchess of Sutherland, with wounded soldiers at No.9 Red Cross Hospital (Millicent Sutherland Ambulance) at Calais, July 1917. IWM Q 2606

Many women seized the opportunity to do ‘their bit’ during the First World War. Women provided support in numerous ways, including telephone operating, war industries, military auxiliaries, agriculture and medical care. Millicent Sutherland-Leveson-Gower was one such motivated individual, setting up a Red Cross Hospital on the Western Front. 20 August 2017 marks 62 years since her death, and in this blog post Catherine Long shares her fascinating story.

 

  • Life before the war

Millicent was born on 20 October 1867 at Dysart House in Fife, Scotland. Her parents were Robert, 4th Earl Rosslyn, and Blanche St. Clair-Erskine.

Millicent married Duke Cromartie Leveson-Gower in 1884, aged 17, becoming the Duchess of Sutherland. They had four children, Victoria (b. 1885), George (b. 1888), Alistair (b. 1890) and Rosemary (b. 1893). The Duke died in 1913, at that time owning 1,500,000 acres.

 

  • Experiences during the conflict

When war was declared Millicent travelled to Paris to join the French Red Cross, but she was told that she would need a permit from the Minister of War to serve in a French military hospital. In a memoir entitled ‘Six Weeks at the War’, she wrote that the Minister of War ‘broke every regulation in my favour, gave me a permit, and expressed devoted gratitude for my services!’

The Duchess set up Number 9 Red Cross Hospital in Namur, Belgium, at the Convent of Les Soeurs de Notre Dame. By 17 August 1914 Millicent had installed an ambulance with eight trained nurses and a surgeon, Mr Oswald Morgan of Guys’ Hospital, in the hospital.

In ‘Six Weeks at the War’, she wrote about not only her experience at the hospital, but also her perception of Germans and the war as ‘a ghastly psychological study.’ Millicent wrote about her determination toward ‘Germany’s deliverance’, criticism of the Prussians and perception that ‘the millions of soldiers at war must not be so sternly blamed as the [Prussian] machine that drives them.’

What I thought would be for me an impossible task became absolutely natural

Millicent Sutherland-Leveson-Gower’s early contribution to the war was encapsulated in her own words: ‘What I thought would be for me an impossible task became absolutely natural: to wash wounds, to drag off rags and clothing soaked in blood, to hold basins equally full of blood, to soothe a soldier’s groans… these actions seemed suddenly to become an insistent duty, perfectly easy to carry out.’

Whilst at Namur she experienced shelling, German occupation of the town, and also had to turn in French and Belgian patients as German prisoners of war. Extracts about these experiences can be read on her Life Story page.

Millicent with her staff of nurses and VADs at No.9 Red Cross Hospital (Millicent Sutherland Ambulance) at Calais, July 1917. IWM Q 2615

Millicent re-married in October 1914, to Percy FitzGerald, who was serving as Brigade Major in the Hussars. She returned to France shortly after their wedding, and served with the Red Cross in France for the remainder of the war. She worked as Commandant, Organiser and Director of the hospital. During the war the hospital moved location from Namur to Malo-les-Bains, Dunkirk, to Bourbourg, to Calais, then Longueness near St. Omer. In 1917 King George V and Queen Mary visited her hospital at Calais at the end of their royal tour of the French battlefields. IWM hold a series of photographs of her at her hospital in Calais, which can be seen on Lives of the First World War.

 

  • Post-war life

Millicent (third from left) with British and French Staff Officers and sisters in the courtyard of the Civil Hospital at Hazebrouck after the investiture with decorations. IWM Q 109515

For her contribution she was decorated with the Royal Red Cross, Croix de Guerre and the Order of the Belgian Red Cross. Millicent married for a third time in 1919, to George Hawes, divorcing in 1925. Millicent lived in France after the war. She died in Orriule Pyrénées-Atlantiques in France on 20 August 1955. Her ashes were buried in the Sutherland private cemetery at Dunrobin in Scotland.

The Duchess of Sutherland is remembered as one of the great English beauties and a successful society hostess. She was also an advocate for social reform and an author.

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